Poisonous Tree Frog Could Bring Wealth to Tribe in Brazilian Amazon

By PAULO PRADA • Published: May 30, 2006


CAMPINAS INDIAN RESERVE, Brazil — Fernando Katukina is chief of an indigenous tribe that lives largely without running water, electricity, or links to the world outside this remote corner of the western Amazon.

A member of the Katukina tribe in the Brazilian Amazon gave a dose of poisonous tree frog secretion to Paulo Bernarde, a biologist investigating possible medicinal uses of the substance.

But Chief Fernando says he possesses a treasure that could be at the cutting-edge of biotechnology. If a plan initiated by the chief is successful, his tribe’s fortunes will be transformed by an asset he and the Brazilian government believe holds great promise for the global pharmaceutical industry: the slime from a poisonous tree frog…

Kambô, The Spirit of the Shaman

By MARCELO BOLSHAW GOMES • Published: August 1st, 2008


“Kambô circulates in the heart. Our shaman said that when we take Kambô it makes the heart move accurately, so that things flow, bringing good things to the person. It is as if there was a cloud on the person, preventing the good things to come, then, when it takes the Kambô; it comes a ‘green light’ which opens its ways, making things easier”

There is a Kaxinawá legend that tells that the Indians of the village were very ill and the Shaman Kampu had done everything that was possible to cure them. All medicinal herbs known were used, but none helped his people’s agony.  Kampu then entered the forest and under the effect of Ayahuasca, received the visit of the great God. He brought in His hands a frog, from which He took a white secretion, and taught how to apply.  Returning to the tribe and following the guidelines that he had received the Shaman Kampu was able to cure his brothers Indians. After his death, the spirit of Kampu has started living in the frog and the Indians began to use its secretion to stay active and healthy.

The case of RH Phyllomedusa Bicolor – Sapo Vacina

By UNKNOWN • Published: Unknown


The green toad Phyllomedusa bicolor is the largest species of the genus Hylidae family, which occurs in the Amazon [ 1 ] . It can be found in almost all Amazonian countries, such as Guianas, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil.  Especially during the rainy season, under trees near the streams. Where they croak all night, announcing rain the next day. But it is at dawn that they are “harvested” in order to remove their cutaneous secretions, to make the “toad vaccine”.

Traditional Use

Taking the toad vaccine is an ancient practice for medicinal purposes, widespread among the indigenous peoples of Brazil and Peru. The most sought after purpose is to “take panema”, that is, to ward off bad luck in hunting and with women.

People Katukina warns against misuse of kampô, the “vaccine sapo”

By BRUNO WEIS • Published: April 27th, 2006


Indians Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, disclose letter denouncing the unauthorized use of his name in marketing secretion frog Phyllomedusa bicolor, whose application has been published in the major cities of the country as a therapy indigenous miraculous. Meanwhile, the substance and its molecules are patented worldwide and the federal government tries to make kampô an emblematic case of benefit sharing related to genetic resources of Brazilian biodiversity.

The popularity of the secretion kampô frog ( Phyllomedusa bicolor) in large Brazilian cities begins to worry the older keepers of this knowledge, the Katukina, indigenous people Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre. Earlier this month, the Association Katukina of Campinas (Akac) issued a letter requesting that people who make…


Study of the Phyllomedusa bicolor cutaneous secretion

By GUARULHOS • Published: 2006


Phyllomedusa bicolor (Boddaert, 1772) is an amphibian of the Amazon rainforest that produces a cutaneous secretion with several bioactive peptides that are used by indigenous peoples in hunting rituals, as a stimulant, and in the traditional medicine. In this study, we realized analyses of the Electrophoretic profile (SDS-PAGE) of proteins collected from the secretion of Phyllomedusa bicolor, during 2004 and 2006, and its antibacterial activity. In vivo analyses were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of local inoculation such as edema formation and presence of inflammatory infiltrate; and also the systemic changes such as total and differential blood leukocyte count. Doses of 0,25; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg/mL were applied to evaluate the edema formation on the footpad model in mice during the periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 hours.


Kambo transforms a bedbound ME/CFS patient in 2 Weeks

By UNKNOWN • Published: April, 27th 2013


Taking Kambo is not for the fainthearted, because minutes after administering Kambo, you start violently and profusely purging from both ends (vomiting and diarrhea at the same time) until there nothing left to purge, and even then, you still purge some. Plus your heartbeat races extremely high during this period, and your throat swells, and blood flushes to your skin so you look bright red.  It is an extremely intense physical experience. During their first Kambo trip, people may  ask themselves “am I going to die?” Though aficionados consider the purging to be a purifying and healing process for the body. No mental or psychedelic effect occur with Kambo; your state of mind remains unaffected.


The Matse and the Sacred



Sapo is made from the secretions of a large banded tree frog mixed with human saliva. The back and legs of the frog are gently scraped and then the unharmed frog is released. The preparation is burned into the skin, a process that must accelerate absorption into capillaries. Gorman (1993) recently reported his first-hand observations of the frog, known as dow-kiet!, and the gentle procedure used by the Matse to collect sapo. Vittorio Erspamer, a pharmacologist who worked with the Fidia Research Institute for the Neurosciences identified the dow-kiet! as Phylomedusa bicolor, a rare arboreal frog. His biochemical assay of sapo identified seven families of bioactive peptides: bradykinins, tachykinins, caerulein, sauvagine, tryptophyllins, dermorphins, and bombesins.


Kambô, a Medicina da Floresta



One day, Shimbam is having difficulty catching game. The Pajé, named Tobias, says that he has a medicine extracted from a frog named Kambô, which is good because it brings happiness to catch hunting. The Pajé makes this invitation and Shimbam accepts, takes the Kambô in his maloca and has a very strong reaction. The Pajé asks that he rest, that he does not go hunting that day.

Panema: difficulty in catching game. It is a given name by the Indian, but which the caboclo and white already know. The next day, Shimbam goes out to hunt and finds the hunt, early. When the Kambô is taken, the hunter approaches, curiously, the hunter; they say that whoever takes it emits a kind of green light, and that’s what makes the hunt come close.


Synthesis and Pharmacology of Deltorphin II Peptide Analogues

Published: APRIL 14th, 2015


Deltorphins are naturally occurring peptides produced by the skin of the giant monkey frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor). They are δopioid receptorselective agonists. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a peptide, TyrDAla( pI)PheGluIleIleGlyNH 3 (GATE38), based on the [DAla ]deltorphin II template, which is δselective in in vitro radioligand binding assays over the μand κopioid receptors. It is a full agonist in [ S]GTPγS functional assays and analgesic when administered supraspinally to mice. Analgesia of 3 (GATE38) is blocked by the selective δ receptor antagonist naltrindole, indicating that the analgesic action of 3 is mediated by the δopioid receptor.


Frog secretions and hunting magic in the upper Amazon

Published: AUGUST 27th, 1992


A frog used for “hunting magic” by several groups of Panoan-speaking Indians in the borderline between Brazil and Peru is identified as PhyUomedusa bicolor. This frog’s skin secretion, which the Indians introduce into the body through fresh burns, is rich in peptides. These include vasoactive peptides, opioid peptides, and a peptide that we have named adenoregulin, with the sequence.  GLWSKIKEVGKEAAKAAAKAAGKAALGAVSEAV as determined from mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. The natural peptide may contain a D amino acid residue since it is not identical in chromatographic properties to the synthetic peptide.


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